Loppon Helen Berliner- February 17, 2012 – Morning talk – “Devotion and lineage” program – Lotus Garden

I fully trust everyone did homework last night and looking forward to detailed, explicit explanation of 37 wings of enlightened path. (laughter) To begin, what did you discover? What most clearly elucidates- for those coming in the middle, this – the arc of our journey will become clear- reiterate where the path is going and where it is from. We are considering Buddha’s final instruction at his death what he felt were the most important instructions. What he felt summarized, encapsulated the pith instructions – we have the expansive and the explicit. We are looking at the explicit. Who would like to begin?   Karl?

  • I found a link very good – Rigpa Shedra (http://www.rigpashedra.org ) – a segment “a brief guide to the states and path of the bodhisattvas” by Patrul Rinpoche. Very easy to read,

The internet has become an amazing resource (as much as I wouldn’t have expected) – if you have a good sense of the teachers and the great teachers of the past and the great authors. Patrul Rinpoche wrote Words of My Perfect Teacher (http://www.amazon.com/Perfect-Teacher-Revised-Sacred-Literature/dp/1570624127) . If you have a good sense of discrimination, it’s a good resource.

Off Wikipedia – the 37 wings are the Buddha’s words from the Pali Cannon.    I didn’t realize how rich the Pali Canon was. It’s all there, the Buddha’s own worlds.

Lopon Rita has been making this point for many years, Lopon Jann will later today. What were in the foundation teachings?  Was he only a little realized?  Did he teach only a certain kind of realization, to be expanded on in the future?  If it was full blown, what did he communicate of that to his disciples in a way they could understand and attain realization themselves? You do the work, you attain the realization.

What Buddha found after enlightenment was that attempting to communicate the true nature of mind went right over peoples’ heads. They weren’t able to easily relate to this.  Buddha retreated from the first attempt to teach. He had to be supplicated to teach by his 5 closest friends, because what could you say?  He realized what he could say to open the door to every human heart was to speak to their own experience – the 4 noble truths, and them the 3 marks of existence.

the 3 marks of existence

  1. Impermanence
  2. No-self
  3. Suffering

These are the 3 marks of existence we experience as the 4 noble truths.

Things are impermanent. We wish they weren’t, but they are, and we suffer. There is no-self. This is looked at more in the 12 nidanas. The original pith instructions were elaborated on.

Impermanence, suffering, and the no-self – no “me” or “that’.

Observing the 3 marks and 4 truths in your own life, you don’t have to be a Buddhist.  Is there permanence or not? Is there suffering in your life or not? Anything solid, non-composite or not?

Observing the 3 marks and 4 noble truths in own experience will not bring you to Buddhism. This IS the practice to Buddhism. The Buddha was not a Buddhist. He didn’t sit under the Bodhi tree thinking “I am going to practice this religion.“ These investigations ARE the practice of Buddhism. The way to become one who is awake, a Buddha.

Just to recap: The 37 wings/factors of enlightenment was the Buddha’s own way of categorizing the most important teachings for us to practice and bring to fruitions.  He said “as long as this list was remembered and brought into practice, his teachings would endure.” Thus, these are the most important to be passed on.

You may think, “How do I remember all these?” when you get up, from the time you get up till you get here to morning prayers, you have done way more than 37 things. You probably have done 2037 things, from the time you jump out of bed – if you still can jump out of bed. 🙂 You have done way more than 37 things without thinking about it, because they are organically what you need to do.  You don’t need micromanaging what you need to do.  It is looking at these things to say “what is going on here? Why did I go there? How did this work?” take these things in a more mindful, more awake way.  For purpose of study, the easy part of the 37 factors is there are in 7 clusters – like clusters of grapes.  Given their unique importance in the Buddha’s own words. They are the standard framework of all the schools of Buddhism, No matter what the view of fruition. There is a standard instructional framework and then they follow/ practice in their own ways.  It has been said the most important is the Noble 8-fold path.  Think about it.  Another reference is Jewel Ornament of Liberation by Gampopa.

Read again this quote:

“What Buddha said “o monks, these things I have discovered and proclaimed should be thoroughly practiced and cultivated, that it maybe practiced for the benefit of the world. And what are these things? The 37 practices of the ….”

Shravakayana, prytekayana up to Bodhisattva yana – these are all traveling along the 5 paths.What are they?

The Five Paths

  1. Path of Accumulation
  2. Path of Application
  3. Path of Seeing
  4. Path of Cultivation
  5. Path of No More Learning

One of the maddening things, the numerous ways they are translated. (laughter)

Patrul Rinpoche-

  1.  Path of Accumulation
  2. Path of Joining
  3. Path of Seeing
  4.  Path of Mediation
  5. Path of No more learning

Joining also “union, linking” – look at what they are describing in terms of your own path.

The 37 wings are ways of going forth.  Think of the 5 paths as stages of development or evolution of your own path. In the jungle, you have a machete, hacking way through confusion, bewilderment, excessive distraction, and excessive addiction to sense perceptions. We are like monkeys: All they need is a whiff and they are running down the primrose path.  You are in a thicket of delusion, and you have no tools. Maybe a hammer or pen knife.  Later it get smoother, it opens up – you are now walking on pine needles, fragrant and soft.  Next, it’s a highway, maybe you have a bike. Then you are on a freeway. And then you are on an airstrip, about to take off in a jet.

Along the way, the 37 practices are organically unpacking themselves, like you putting on clothes and getting to morning chants.

One point – the thought of enlightenment is not most of our points of departure. For most of us, it’s getting out of pain.  Pain of never enough, and will never be enough. The sense perceptions are insatiable. They are like a flame. It is their job to seek and consume an object. They are between our wanting to tame mind, from wanting to get out of habitual patterns , and habitual ways of getting hooked, based on the basic way of getting attached,  based off thinking there is a way to getting things.  It’s like looking for love in all the wrong places.

Enlightenment is way far away for most of us. It reminds me of the descriptions of Tibetans escaping Tibet to get away from the Chinese. You would take 9 days to go up and down a mountain, only to find you are in the foothills of another mountain range. And you then get to another 4 or  5 ranges.

Talking about enlightenment is (abstract). I am just trying to get through day.

But we are aware of suffering, what makes our Precious Human Birth precious. We are aware of suffering, and we get dissatisfied with that – “There must be more than that.”  Our awareness brings us to a point– if we are very very fortunate, as all of us in this room are- where we can ask “what is the cause of this suffering?? “The best fortune of all, to have the answer sitting there in your iPhone. (laughter) The gurus are representatives of an unbroken lineage back to the Buddha himself. The sense of devotion begins to percolate in our hearts out of our basic sense of intelligence, appreciation.

What is being described at this point of the 9 Yana journey in the long 7 branch prayer is mindfulness and ethics – the ethics of restraint. Why? Working with habitual patterns, the untrained mind, then mind getting us into trouble, which we are now smart enough to realize 1) is happening and 2) doesn’t have to happen.

Mindfulness and ethics of restraint is breaking the karmic patterns. We can see just how strong the grasping is when we say “no, I won’t have it.”  I want that chocolate bar, no I won’t., when half you mind and body are already there (laughter)

This is about the Ethics of restraint, renunciation and mundane attainments.  The mundane attainments are skills that arise out of mediation techniques. It is overcoming, in your own experience, the untrustworthiness of the sense perceptions. This is NOT book learning. We discover for ourselves we are not permanent, not the same I was 5, 7, 30 years ago. Mind and body are not the same. Then slowly, surely we realize the shiftiness of sense perceptions. We realize that chocolate bar doesn’t bring ultimate happiness. (laughter) It will be gone in a flash, and will be driving to get another one. (laughter)

The arc of the initial 3 yanas – the ballpark here – the disciplines could be summarized as Shila, Samadhi and prajna.  In English, this is Discipline, concentration, and what has been translated as wisdom, or  insight, or discriminating awareness.

This is the whole backdrop of 5 paths. (What we are doing during this program) is not being a strict meditation retreat. We are not focusing on shamatha–vipashyana per se – sitting practice.  We are talking about developing in each of us a sense of peace, spaciousness, well being.  Call it shamatha, the path of accumulation, whatever. As part of our experience, we are looking at the development of peacefulness, spaciousness, within oneself. Why else study all this? These words convey an actual experience.

From that, call it vipashyana, or the flowering of mindfulness into awareness. Whatever you call it, it leads to peace, well-being, clear seeing. Clear seeing is puncturing the paper tiger of phenomena.  2-fold emptiness of self and other is the puncturing, which is the basis of our personal, social, and environmental sanity. This is what we are cultivating here. While we are not taking it as strictly shamatha–vipashyana – this is a form of vipashyana, contemplating, hearing, learning. This is also vipashyana. This is where we develop confidence, faith in what does ring true for us.

What is the path of accumulation?  What does it consist of? It is the 1st of 5 paths. It contains 3 clusters of 37 wings of enlightenment.  There are 3 sets of 4.

Path of accumulation

  1. 4 foundations of mindfulness
  2. 4 restraints
  3. 4 legs of miracles, or the 4 basis of miraculous powers

From “THE UTTARATANTRA: A Treatise on Buddha-Essence. by Ven. Khenchen Thrangu Rinpoche”

First Path: Path of Accumulation  (12)

The Four Types of Mindfulness

  1. Mindfulness of Body
  2. Mindfulness of Feelings
  3. Mindfulness of Mind
  4. Mindfulness of Phenomena

The Four Types of Perfect Abandonment

  1. Abandoning non-virtues which have been created
  2. Not allowing new non-virtues to be produced
  3. Producing the virtuous remedies not yet present
  4. Assuring the increase of those virtues which have already arisen

The Four Feet of Miraculous Powers

  1. The absorption of strong aspiration
  2. Perseverance
  3. Through Intention
  4. Investigation

4 Foundations of Mindfulness

  • -body, feeling, perceptions, mind and phenomena or
  • -body feeling, consciousness and mental objects

The 4 Foundations of Mindfulness has been called by the great teachers “the direct path to nirvana.”  The remaining sets could be seen as a way of working out the 4 foundations of mindfulness.  What it mean? Further insight into the reality of composite phenomena, these are the seeds of understanding emptiness of self and other.  Basically empty of a permanent self. This further insight is the clear seeing of vipashyana.  This clear seeing is the bridge from beginning of path of accumulation to middle of path of accumulation.

We made 1st step, now 2nd step.

These are bringing prajna-insight into our experience of the nature of reality, composite phenomena. We are discovering.  Could be said to cultivate prajna.

The 4 foundations are a study in themselves. We could spend a month on them – body, feelings, mind and phenomena.  We have been doing them on Thursday night classes!  Also the 10 day holiday retreat.

Path of accumulation

This is the middle part on the way to the path of linking. The 2nd cluster-

The 4 restraints

  1. Do not generate negative stages that have not arisen – don’t generate negativity. Looking at beautiful day, saying “it’s going to snow”
  2. If you have generated negative states, stop.
  3. do generate virtuous states that have not arisen yet. – What is a virtuous state? – Helpful to go back to 10 unvirtuous actions and doing opposite. The DNA of it- 10 and 10.
  4. Don’t allow virtuous states started to deteriorate.

It is easier to cut unvirtuous state right when they have arisen. The more fuel is on the fire, the harder it is to stop.  Mindrolling Jetsün Khandro Rinpoche has taught beautifully – Dzigar Kongtrol has too – It is easy to catch unvirtuous states at the beginning, hard in the middle, and REALLY difficult in the end.

Don’t generate the 10 unvirtuous actions. If you have, stop. Generate the 10 virtuous actions.  If you have generated 10 virtuous, don’t stop.

You see the logic of practicing restraint.  When you come into it, it is full force.  Work backwards from being overwhelmed.  Renunciation is from the point of view of something that has seeds needing conditions to prosper. Do not allow the positive ones to deteriorate, and allow them to arise more.

We are looking at how we are hardwired. We recognize the problem, we see a solution, and it takes effort. It’s like training yourself from bad posture habit. Need to train out of bad habit to train into good habit. This is a positive way of stating what the monkeys and the wine story said as a negative.

Solicitation of positive state not present. Protection of decline of positive states – not losing what you have already

-The verse from Shantideva:

May the precious bodhichitta arise in those in whom it has not arisen. Having arisen, may it not decrease, but ever expand, more and more.

The beauty of the investigation is you read the liturgies and every other word is a hyperlink! J

We are talking about shila.

The 4 basis of miraculous powers/ legs of miracles

  1. Strong aspiration
  2. Diligence
  3. attention
  4. Discernment
1         Samadhi based on Determination2         Samadhi based on Exertion3         Samadhi based on Attention4         Samadhi based on Discernment
  1. Concentration based on intent
  2. Concentration based Diligence
  3. Concentration based Attention
  4. Concentration based Discernment/analysis

We are we at this point in the sattipatana sutta  contemplating the vileness of human body? Because we are working with attachment.  From this point of view, we still looking at desire as grasping/clinging, which is different from desire as intent.

End of path of accumulation.

These are the concentrations of mind that go along with shila of restraint that go along with the prajna of 4 foundations of mindfulness. This is intentional.  Connected with 4 miracles- supernormal powers- the narratives tell stories of miracles arising from Samadhi. The real supernormal power is well-being based on simplicity and absorption, on not being caught up in the fire of senses. Able to sit, detach, and experience well-being of letting go, just being. It has been said if there is no sense of well-being arising from practice, then meditation is just a myth, a fairy tale.

For some realized meditators, supernormal powers are not super.

Discrimination is between wrong view and right view.  Wrong view- me me me – I’m going to go with what makes me happy. (laughter)  “Well said, oh son!” (laughter))

4 basis of miraculous powers

According to Khenpo Namdrol, these 4 basis of powers are related to 4 noble truths. “remaining in isolation”  is isolation from suffering. “Free from attachment” is freedom from the origin of suffering. “Remaining in cessation” is cessation of suffering. It’s not a dhyana state. It is cessation of suffering, the meditation on complete transformation refers to the path.  It’s being enriched with insight/understanding based on realization.

We haven’t even gotten to the 2nd path yet.  The conclusion is, this brings one to completely different way of viewing life.  The shamatha–vipashyana approach here leads to complete shredding of believing in conventional approach to life.

Mindrolling Jetsün Khandro Rinpoche has remarked how miraculous that people can be compassionate to all beings. It’s a miracle that people can be unselfishly compassionate to all beings in this world.   His Holiness Mindrolling Trinchen Rinpoche – the greatest miracle is to be kind.  What is enlightenment? HH Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche – “be kind.”  One of the Kagyu teachers asked this. Work with this understanding of what a miracle is. – taking hold of your true nature. The true nature is the path of kindness/compassion.

But, to amuse with a mundane story (laughter):  This is a bit “mysterious” story of how the Hindu god Brahma became a follower of the Buddha. Brahma challenged Buddha to a contest of miracles. Brahma kept disappearing from the place and reappearing. It was like the miracle of playing hide and seek with Brahma.  Brahma would hide himself, and Buddha would always find him. Then Buddha hid in emptiness, and Brahma couldn’t find him. (laughter)

Then there was the story of a nun and Mara. The nun says to Mara (…) – I can make myself ….i am master of my mind,

Mundane powers are not necessarily insight. They are just abilities. We tend to make big things of miracle powers. Jamgon Kongtrol was challenged one time when he was teaching, shortly before he died, “if you are so good at relieving suffering, why don’t you make money?”  Jamgon Kongtrol responded “that’s easy.”  The person in the crowd responded, “If that’s so easy, why don’t you make money and give it to everyone?”   Jamgon Kongtrol answered that if he did, “because of karma, within 24 hours, everything would be back to how it was before but worse.”

The reason for the teachings are to lead one out of samsara.  Having someone lay something on you is like trying to put a patch on a sail in a tornado.

Second Path: Path of Application (10)

From “THE UTTARATANTRA: A Treatise on Buddha-Essence. by Ven. Khenchen Thrangu Rinpoche”

The Five Powers

  1. The Power of Faith
  2. The Power of Diligence
  3. The Power of Mindfulness
  4. The Power of Absorption
  5. The Power of Wisdom Awareness

The Five Strengths

  1. Faith
  2. Diligence
  3. Mindfulness
  4. Absorption
  5. Wisdom Awareness

There are two sets of five. These are Spiritual faculties and spiritual powers. The two Clusters are:

  1. The 5 faculties.
  2. The 5 strengths/ powers

Five faculties

  1. Faith
  2. Diligence
  3. Mindfulness
  4.  Absorption
  5. Wisdom awareness

In a Nutshell, It is said ones’ spiritual progress depends on these 5 cardinal virtues.  Unlike ordinary habit of being sense based and impulse driven.  It’s a huge shift, from being someone for eons sense based and impulse driven.  Unlike that, you have made a shift into a path of mindfulness and awareness- that depends on 5 cardinal virtues/faculties arising in mind.

Faith/conviction – is not blind. you understand why you are doing what you are doing, the purpose, what the skillful means will be – sense of conviction

Diligence– need for vigor.

Mindfulness– since we are impulsively hardwired to be sense based-

Absorption – Focus

Wisdom awareness Discriminating between “that is the old stuff” and now.

2nd are the five faculties, which are the same elements.

Five faculties

  1. Faith
  2. Diligence
  3. Mindfulness
  4. Absorption
  5. Wisdom awareness

There is a stability of  five powers.  The faculties were just being developed. The 5 powers are where the rubber hits the road.

The tentative phase and the ????  phase. Gunether

Third Path: Path of Seeing (7)

From “THE UTTARATANTRA: A Treatise on Buddha-Essence. by Ven. Khenchen Thrangu Rinpoche”

The Seven Branches

  1. Perfect Mindfulness Branch
  2. Discrimination Branch
  3. Diligence Branch
  4. Joy Branch
  5. Relaxation Branch
  6. Absorption Branch
  7. Equanimity Branch

In the Path of seeing, there is one cluster: the 7 factors of enlightenment/awakening

Seven factors of enlightenment/awakening

  1. Enlightened mindfulness
  2. discernment
  3. Effort
  4. Joy
  5. Alert ease
  6. Contemplation
  7. Equanimity

In Ways of enlightenment, they are described as:

  1. Mindfulness
  2. Discrimination
  3. Perseverance
  4. Authentic job/enthusiasm
  5. Pliancy suppleness
  6. Contemplation
  7. Equanimity

Based on these seven, you can truly investigate phenomena, what you experience with body, speech and mind.  You can discriminate and investigate the phenomena, you know what you want to pursue, what basket to put your eggs in. You know where to put your energy, prioritizing. It has been described as being passionlessness.

In the west, we don’t like this word “Passionlessness.” We are talking about attachment. A lack of passion for the cause of suffering,a  lack of passion for conditioned reality. As Thicht Naht Hahn said, we are consuming constantly. We are sensory turkeys, Gobblers of sense perceptions. Great passion is fueled by habitual grasping and clinging.  If you were only to work with grasping, all those objects tend to have less pull. They no longer hook us.    (If one works with these, one has) a passion for the unconditioned. A passion for wisdom, understanding the true nature.

The arising of real energy is pursuit of real joy, real equanimity.  It’s not boring.

The first 6 factors of enlightenment are leading to the 7th.  Enlightened equanimity is the 7th.

Fourth Path: Path of Cultivation (8)

The Eight-fold Path

From “THE UTTARATANTRA: A Treatise on Buddha-Essence. by Ven. Khenchen Thrangu Rinpoche”

  1. Perfect View
  2. Perfect Concentration
  3. Perfect Speech
  4. Perfect Action
  5. Perfect Livelihood
  6. Perfect Effort
  7. Perfect Mindfulness
  8. Perfect Absorption

In the Path of Meditation, there is one set of eight:  the Eight-fold Path.  One effortlessly lives out the noble Eight-fold Path, which probably exists to demonstrate that awakened beings, out of compassion, need to carry on to show path to others and it is their natural way of being.

We are talking about the bodhisattva bhumis. With the path of seeing, we are talking about the first bhumi, the bhumi of Joy. Why joy?  Suffering is ceasing. This is good news. The good news starts to be a reality, and not a thing on the other side of 15 mountain passes.

However, moving into area of bhumis- tasting what emptiness of self and other really tastes like, and what it brings to our existence and that of other.

The path of meditation  is the noble Eight-fold Path. Even the bodhisattvas, if/when they come into our lives, follow the Eight-fold Path. It is the natural way of their being in the power. It’s an organic process, like getting from bed to the shrine room, which required a lot of effort to get these. By living the 8 fold path, you are an example to others. This is where devotion comes from. We look at someone and say, “I want to become like that.”  I honor/revere one who manifests that, and has the kindness to share this.

The View is anchored in pure perception, and penetrates perceptions without being carried away.  This is right concentration.

Fifth Path: Path of No More Learning (0)

The Final path is nirvana. It is not a path, but acknowledgement of the goal/ The path of no more learning is fulfillment.

We have schematically traversed the first three yanas.

The 16 types of awareness are the same as the 16 ways of looking at the 4 noble truths.

Middling stage of the path of accumulation

(Most of us are in the) Middling level of path of accumulation, working on how we can really eradicate those seeds that could lead to being born in lower realms of suffering. This includes how to move away from the theistic notion of saviors outside ourselves. It is the Investigation of the truth of composite reality, and the emptiness of self and other.  There is an emphasis on ethics out of pride, not fear. The  pride is of being a lineage holder of four noble truths. You are honoring the practice and yourself for holding the teachings.

Trungpa Rinpoche said in the 1973 Seminary transcripts:

“We are setting the stage for entering the Mahayana properly, by pointing where we are leaving behind.  The Path of accumulation is directing the journey to Mahayana practice of Buddhism. There are several ideas of entering Mahayana, including that one has attained bhumi.  The ordinary person is on the journey towards the Mahayana with the inspiration of the Hiniyana discipline.“

“We takes a sackcloth and ashes approach, instead of the hiniyana discipline being good news, and source of ‘family pride.’ It is the roots, our foundation. We are inspired by beginning of path of accumulation, by meditative absorption, patience, faith and so on.  The characteristic that lets us go forward is cutting the cause of birth in the lower realms.

The Middling stage of the path of accumulation is preventing any seed of rebirth in lower realms.  This is going to be part of any ordinary spiritual thinking of saving oneself.  This is the worldly Yana of gods and men.  It’s an excellent place to begin. It is where we all begin.  But from this point of view, we must go further.  The Worldly Yana is any doctrine that believes in an ego and external ego could follow from that.  We are talking about emptiness of self, and all ‘other’ – world systems, people, object of perceptions, (God).   This is going away from the notion of savior. For this reason, Buddha declared,  “I am not a savior, I am not a god. I am not a man. I am awake.”  This is going away from any sense of materialistic sense of relating to spiritual path. This is in the middle of path of accumulation. Contemplate it yourself, and you will see how it worked.

Any stage of the path – worldly/samsaric, theistic, and so on – is an understandable stage of the path based on the needs of that practitioner.  It is like looking at children.  They need a sense of security, a parent figure, things from outside self. It would be silly to say “you, my 1 year old child, should be taking care of yourself!”  It won’t happen. It is unkind and cruel to superimpose one’s own view onto the needs and desires of another.  All sentient beings want happiness: this is the one universal truth. The truly great teachers can boil enlightenment down to the miracle of kindness; we can boil down to kindness. Just as we have our own journey on path, our practice is the practice of kindness.

It’s almost impossible to truly be kind when your whole identity is ego.  So we are manipulated with guilt, and threats of heaven and hell. We are trying to be a good person from ego.  We go into situations with the best intentions of “I want to do good.”  But doing it with the view of a solid ego is why they often fall short. You know what they say about the road to hell…

Tulku urgyen said, “ you pretend to be kind, but at some point, even momentarily, the sense of self and other will dissolve.

It’s tragic to see how it is created.   We need to train this unruly mind with eons of oomph behind it going the other way. Now is the time, this is the place.  Without training, we don’t have proper fortification. There is a (Tibetan?) saying, “Painted cakes don’t feed hunger.” Once this path becomes your natural way of being in the world, the bodhisattva behaves according to this way of being on path of no more learning.  There is a flowering of matri which becomes compassion. Grand compassion cannot happen without matri first.

Thinking learning, reading, and delving into the teachings of the Buddha is a form of vipashyana. The 12 branches of the Buddha’s teachings –

1)      poems,

2)      aphorisms,

3)       sutras,

4)      long discourses,

5)      prophecies,

6)       parables,

7)      miracles,

8)       stories of the past lives of Buddhas

(ed. note – I didn’t get the last 4. My apologies. – LWWD/ JTR)

the various ways he expressed these simple truths based on the needs and understanding of the people he was talking to.

In the original Greek,

“Con” means “to join with “

“Template” was derived from “temple “, which was a place where divinations were done.

“Con templum” is “the place where one joins divination with an ordinary experience.”

In Contemplation, we take the reading and let it sink into the mind of mediation, an open unbiased space, and let it rattle around in there. (laughter)

The consensus of how people understand Buddha’s’ teachings and what they understand are the 9 yanas, based on understandings.

The first 3 yanas are all about cutting the causes of confusion. Some scholars may disagree, and say this is the entrance to prajna intelligence. Jamgon Kongtrol said it was still Hiniyana.


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